通过grep --help或者man grep查看grep命令用法

通过在linux命令行终端中输入

grep --help

可以查看到grep的中文用法介绍,显示如下。如果是使用man grep,显示的是英文的介绍。

用法: grep [选项]... PATTERN [FILE]...
在每个 FILE 或是标准输入中查找 PATTERN。
默认的 PATTERN 是一个基本正则表达式(缩写为 BRE)。
例如: grep -i 'hello world' menu.h main.c

正则表达式选择与解释:
  -E, --extended-regexp     PATTERN 是一个可扩展的正则表达式(缩写为 ERE)
  -F, --fixed-strings       PATTERN 是一组由断行符分隔的定长字符串。
  -G, --basic-regexp        PATTERN 是一个基本正则表达式(缩写为 BRE)
  -P, --perl-regexp         PATTERN 是一个 Perl 正则表达式
  -e, --regexp=PATTERN      用 PATTERN 来进行匹配操作
  -f, --file=FILE           从 FILE 中取得 PATTERN
  -i, --ignore-case         忽略大小写
  -w, --word-regexp         强制 PATTERN 仅完全匹配字词
  -x, --line-regexp         强制 PATTERN 仅完全匹配一行
  -z, --null-data           一个 0 字节的数据行,但不是空行

杂项:
  -s, --no-messages         不显示错误信息
  -v, --invert-match        选中不匹配的行
  -V, --version             显示版本信息并退出
      --help                显示此帮助并退出
      --mmap                忽略向后兼容性

输出控制:
  -m, --max-count=NUM       NUM 次匹配后停止
  -b, --byte-offset         输出行的同时打印字节偏移
  -n, --line-number         输出行的同时打印行号
      --line-buffered       每行输出清空
  -H, --with-filename       为每一匹配项打印文件名
  -h, --no-filename         输出时不显示文件名前缀
      --label=LABEL         标准输入将LABEL 打印为文件名
  -o, --only-matching       只显示一行中匹配PATTERN 的部分
  -q, --quiet, --silent     不显示所有输出
      --binary-files=TYPE   假定二进制文件的TYPE 类型;
                            TYPE 可以是`binary', `text', 或`without-match'
  -a, --text                等同于 --binary-files=text
  -I                        等同于 --binary-files=without-match
  -d, --directories=ACTION  操作目录的方式;
                            ACTION 可以是`read', `recurse',或`skip'
  -D, --devices=ACTION      操作设备、先入先出队列、套接字的方式;
                            ACTION 可以是`read'或`skip'
  -R, -r, --recursive       等同于 --directories=recurse
      --include=FILE_PATTERN  只查找匹配FILE_PATTERN 的文件
      --exclude=FILE_PATTERN  跳过匹配FILE_PATTERN 的文件和目录
      --exclude-from=FILE   跳过所有除FILE 以外的文件
      --exclude-dir=PATTERN  跳过所有匹配PATTERN 的目录。
  -L, --files-without-match  只打印不匹配FILEs 的文件名
  -l, --files-with-matches  只打印匹配FILES 的文件名
  -c, --count               只打印每个FILE 中的匹配行数目
  -T, --initial-tab         行首tabs 分隔(如有必要)
  -Z, --null                在FILE 文件最后打印空字符

文件控制:
  -B, --before-context=NUM  打印以文本起始的NUM 行
  -A, --after-context=NUM   打印以文本结尾的NUM 行
  -C, --context=NUM         打印输出文本NUM 行
  -NUM                      等同于 --context=NUM
      --color[=WHEN],
      --colour[=WHEN]       使用标志高亮匹配字串;
                            WHEN 可以是`always', `never'或`auto'
  -U, --binary              不要清除行尾的CR 字符(MSDOS 模式)
  -u, --unix-byte-offsets   当CR 字符不存在,报告字节偏移(MSDOS 模式)

‘egrep’即‘grep -E’。‘fgrep’即‘grep -F’。
直接使用‘egrep’或是‘fgrep’均已不可行了。
不带 FILE 参数,或是 FILE 为 -,将读取标准输入。如果少于两个 FILE 参数
就要默认使用 -h 参数。如果选中任意一行,那退出状态为 0,否则为 1;
如果有错误产生,且未指定 -q 参数,那退出状态为 2。

请将错误报告给: bug-grep@gnu.org
GNU Grep 主页: <http://www.gnu.org/software/grep/>

GNU 软件的通用帮助: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>

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下面是通过man grep查看到的介绍,要比上面用grep --help显示的详细。

GREP(1)                                                                                                                                              GREP(1)



NAME
       grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep - print lines matching a pattern

SYNOPSIS
       grep [OPTIONS] PATTERN [FILE...]
       grep [OPTIONS] [-e PATTERN | -f FILE] [FILE...]

DESCRIPTION
       grep  searches  the  named  input  FILEs  (or  standard input if no files are named, or if a single hyphen-minus (-) is given as file name) for lines
       containing a match to the given PATTERN.  By default, grep prints the matching lines.

       In addition, three variant programs egrep, fgrep and rgrep are available.  egrep is the same as grep -E.  fgrep is the same as grep -F.  rgrep is the
       same as grep -r.  Direct invocation as either egrep or fgrep is deprecated, but is provided to allow historical applications that rely on them to run
       unmodified.

OPTIONS
   Generic Program Information
       --help Print a usage message briefly summarizing these command-line options and the bug-reporting address, then exit.

       -V, --version
              Print the version number of grep to the standard output stream.  This version number should be included in all bug reports (see below).

   Matcher Selection
       -E, --extended-regexp
              Interpret PATTERN as an extended regular expression (ERE, see below).  (-E is specified by POSIX.)

       -F, --fixed-strings
              Interpret PATTERN as a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines, any of which is to be matched.  (-F is specified by POSIX.)

       -G, --basic-regexp
              Interpret PATTERN as a basic regular expression (BRE, see below).  This is the default.

       -P, --perl-regexp
              Interpret PATTERN as a Perl regular expression.  This is highly experimental and grep -P may warn of unimplemented features.

   Matching Control
       -e PATTERN, --regexp=PATTERN
              Use PATTERN as the pattern.  This can be used to specify multiple search patterns, or to protect a pattern beginning with a hyphen  (-).   (-e
              is specified by POSIX.)

       -f FILE, --file=FILE
              Obtain patterns from FILE, one per line.  The empty file contains zero patterns, and therefore matches nothing.  (-f is specified by POSIX.)

       -i, --ignore-case
              Ignore case distinctions in both the PATTERN and the input files.  (-i is specified by POSIX.)

       -v, --invert-match
              Invert the sense of matching, to select non-matching lines.  (-v is specified by POSIX.)

       -w, --word-regexp
              Select  only those lines containing matches that form whole words.  The test is that the matching substring must either be at the beginning of
              the line, or preceded by a non-word constituent character.  Similarly, it must be either at the end of the line  or  followed  by  a  non-word
              constituent character.  Word-constituent characters are letters, digits, and the underscore.

       -x, --line-regexp
              Select only those matches that exactly match the whole line.  (-x is specified by POSIX.)

       -y     Obsolete synonym for -i.

   General Output Control
       -c, --count
              Suppress  normal  output;  instead print a count of matching lines for each input file.  With the -v, --invert-match option (see below), count
              non-matching lines.  (-c is specified by POSIX.)

       --color[=WHEN], --colour[=WHEN]
              Surround the matched (non-empty) strings, matching lines, context lines, file names, line numbers, byte offsets, and  separators  (for  fields
              and  groups  of  context  lines)  with  escape  sequences to display them in color on the terminal.  The colors are defined by the environment
              variable GREP_COLORS.  The deprecated environment variable GREP_COLOR is still supported, but its setting does not  have  priority.   WHEN  is
              never, always, or auto.

       -L, --files-without-match
              Suppress  normal  output;  instead print the name of each input file from which no output would normally have been printed.  The scanning will
              stop on the first match.

       -l, --files-with-matches
              Suppress normal output; instead print the name of each input file from which output would normally have been printed.  The scanning will  stop
              on the first match.  (-l is specified by POSIX.)

       -m NUM, --max-count=NUM
              Stop  reading  a  file  after NUM matching lines.  If the input is standard input from a regular file, and NUM matching lines are output, grep
              ensures that the standard input is positioned to just after the last matching line before exiting, regardless  of  the  presence  of  trailing
              context  lines.  This enables a calling process to resume a search.  When grep stops after NUM matching lines, it outputs any trailing context
              lines.  When the -c or --count option is also used, grep does not output a count greater than NUM.  When the -v or  --invert-match  option  is
              also used, grep stops after outputting NUM non-matching lines.

       -o, --only-matching
              Print only the matched (non-empty) parts of a matching line, with each such part on a separate output line.

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              Quiet;  do  not  write  anything  to standard output.  Exit immediately with zero status if any match is found, even if an error was detected.
              Also see the -s or --no-messages option.  (-q is specified by POSIX.)

       -s, --no-messages
              Suppress error messages about nonexistent or unreadable files.  Portability note: unlike GNU grep, 7th Edition Unix grep did  not  conform  to
              POSIX, because it lacked -q and its -s option behaved like GNU grep's -q option.  USG-style grep also lacked -q but its -s option behaved like
              GNU grep.  Portable shell scripts should avoid both -q and -s and should redirect standard and error output  to  /dev/null  instead.   (-s  is
              specified by POSIX.)

   Output Line Prefix Control
       -b, --byte-offset
              Print the 0-based byte offset within the input file before each line of output.  If -o (--only-matching) is specified, print the offset of the
              matching part itself.

       -H, --with-filename
              Print the file name for each match.  This is the default when there is more than one file to search.

       -h, --no-filename
              Suppress the prefixing of file names on output.  This is the default when there is only one file (or only standard input) to search.

       --label=LABEL
              Display input actually coming from standard input as input coming from file LABEL.  This is especially useful  when  implementing  tools  like
              zgrep, e.g., gzip -cd foo.gz | grep --label=foo -H something.  See also the -H option.

       -n, --line-number
              Prefix each line of output with the 1-based line number within its input file.  (-n is specified by POSIX.)

       -T, --initial-tab
              Make sure that the first character of actual line content lies on a tab stop, so that the alignment of tabs looks normal.  This is useful with
              options that prefix their output to the actual content: -H,-n, and -b.  In order to improve the probability that lines from a single file will
              all start at the same column, this also causes the line number and byte offset (if present) to be printed in a minimum size field width.

       -u, --unix-byte-offsets
              Report  Unix-style  byte  offsets.   This  switch causes grep to report byte offsets as if the file were a Unix-style text file, i.e., with CR
              characters stripped off.  This will produce results identical to running grep on a Unix machine.  This option has no effect unless  -b  option
              is also used; it has no effect on platforms other than MS-DOS and MS-Windows.

       -Z, --null
              Output a zero byte (the ASCII NUL character) instead of the character that normally follows a file name.  For example, grep -lZ outputs a zero
              byte after each file name instead of the usual newline.  This option makes the  output  unambiguous,  even  in  the  presence  of  file  names
              containing  unusual  characters  like  newlines.   This  option can be used with commands like find -print0, perl -0, sort -z, and xargs -0 to
              process arbitrary file names, even those that contain newline characters.

   Context Line Control
       -A NUM, --after-context=NUM
              Print NUM lines of trailing context after matching lines.  Places a line containing a  group  separator  (--)  between  contiguous  groups  of
              matches.  With the -o or --only-matching option, this has no effect and a warning is given.

       -B NUM, --before-context=NUM
              Print  NUM  lines  of  leading  context  before  matching lines.  Places a line containing a group separator (--) between contiguous groups of
              matches.  With the -o or --only-matching option, this has no effect and a warning is given.

       -C NUM, -NUM, --context=NUM
              Print NUM lines of output context.  Places a line containing a group separator (--) between contiguous groups of  matches.   With  the  -o  or
              --only-matching option, this has no effect and a warning is given.

   File and Directory Selection
       -a, --text
              Process a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=text option.

       --binary-files=TYPE
              If  the  first  few  bytes  of  a file indicate that the file contains binary data, assume that the file is of type TYPE.  By default, TYPE is
              binary, and grep normally outputs either a one-line message saying that a binary file matches, or no message if there is no match.  If TYPE is
              without-match,  grep assumes that a binary file does not match; this is equivalent to the -I option.  If TYPE is text, grep processes a binary
              file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the -a option.  Warning: grep --binary-files=text might output binary garbage, which  can  have
              nasty side effects if the output is a terminal and if the terminal driver interprets some of it as commands.

       -D ACTION, --devices=ACTION
              If an input file is a device, FIFO or socket, use ACTION to process it.  By default, ACTION is read, which means that devices are read just as
              if they were ordinary files.  If ACTION is skip, devices are silently skipped.

       -d ACTION, --directories=ACTION
              If an input file is a directory, use ACTION to process it.  By default, ACTION is read, which means that directories are read just as if  they
              were  ordinary  files.  If ACTION is skip, directories are silently skipped.  If ACTION is recurse, grep reads all files under each directory,
              recursively; this is equivalent to the -r option.

       --exclude=GLOB
              Skip files whose base name matches GLOB (using wildcard matching).  A file-name glob can use *, ?, and [...]  as wildcards, and \ to  quote  a
              wildcard or backslash character literally.

       --exclude-from=FILE
              Skip files whose base name matches any of the file-name globs read from FILE (using wildcard matching as described under --exclude).

       --exclude-dir=DIR
              Exclude directories matching the pattern DIR from recursive searches.

       -I     Process a binary file as if it did not contain matching data; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=without-match option.

       --include=GLOB
              Search only files whose base name matches GLOB (using wildcard matching as described under --exclude).

       -R, -r, --recursive
              Read all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the -d recurse option.

   Other Options
       --line-buffered
              Use line buffering on output.  This can cause a performance penalty.

       --mmap If  possible, use the mmap(2) system call to read input, instead of the default read(2) system call.  In some situations, --mmap yields better
              performance.  However, --mmap can cause undefined behavior (including core dumps) if an input file shrinks while grep is operating, or  if  an
              I/O error occurs.

       -U, --binary
              Treat the file(s) as binary.  By default, under MS-DOS and MS-Windows, grep guesses the file type by looking at the contents of the first 32KB
              read from the file.  If grep decides the file is a text file, it strips the CR characters from the original file  contents  (to  make  regular
              expressions  with  ^  and  $ work correctly).  Specifying -U overrules this guesswork, causing all files to be read and passed to the matching
              mechanism verbatim; if the file is a text file with CR/LF pairs at the end of each line, this will cause some  regular  expressions  to  fail.
              This option has no effect on platforms other than MS-DOS and MS-Windows.

       -z, --null-data
              Treat  the  input  as  a  set  of lines, each terminated by a zero byte (the ASCII NUL character) instead of a newline.  Like the -Z or --null
              option, this option can be used with commands like sort -z to process arbitrary file names.

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       A regular expression is a pattern that describes a set of strings.  Regular expressions are constructed analogously  to  arithmetic  expressions,  by
       using various operators to combine smaller expressions.

       grep  understands  three  different  versions  of  regular  expression syntax: “basic,” “extended” and “perl.” In GNU grep, there is no difference in
       available functionality between basic and extended syntaxes.  In other implementations, basic regular expressions are less powerful.   The  following
       description  applies  to extended regular expressions; differences for basic regular expressions are summarized afterwards.  Perl regular expressions
       give additional functionality, and are documented in pcresyntax(3) and pcrepattern(3), but may not be available on every system.

       The fundamental building blocks are the regular expressions that match a single character.  Most characters, including all letters  and  digits,  are
       regular expressions that match themselves.  Any meta-character with special meaning may be quoted by preceding it with a backslash.

       The period . matches any single character.

   Character Classes and Bracket Expressions
       A  bracket  expression is a list of characters enclosed by [ and ].  It matches any single character in that list; if the first character of the list
       is the caret ^ then it matches any character not in the list.  For example, the regular expression [0123456789] matches any single digit.

       Within a bracket expression, a range expression consists of two characters separated by a hyphen.  It matches any single character that sorts between
       the two characters, inclusive, using the locale's collating sequence and character set.  For example, in the default C locale, [a-d] is equivalent to
       [abcd].  Many locales sort characters in dictionary order, and in these locales [a-d] is typically not equivalent to [abcd]; it might  be  equivalent
       to  [aBbCcDd],  for  example.   To  obtain  the  traditional  interpretation  of  bracket expressions, you can use the C locale by setting the LC_ALL
       environment variable to the value C.

       Finally, certain named classes of characters are predefined within bracket expressions, as follows.  Their names are self explanatory, and  they  are
       [:alnum:],  [:alpha:],  [:cntrl:],  [:digit:],  [:graph:],  [:lower:],  [:print:],  [:punct:],  [:space:],  [:upper:],  and [:xdigit:].  For example,
       [[:alnum:]] means [0-9A-Za-z], except the latter form depends upon the C locale and the ASCII character encoding, whereas the former  is  independent
       of  locale  and  character set.  (Note that the brackets in these class names are part of the symbolic names, and must be included in addition to the
       brackets delimiting the bracket expression.)  Most meta-characters lose their special meaning inside bracket expressions.  To  include  a  literal  ]
       place it first in the list.  Similarly, to include a literal ^ place it anywhere but first.  Finally, to include a literal - place it last.

   Anchoring
       The caret ^ and the dollar sign $ are meta-characters that respectively match the empty string at the beginning and end of a line.

   The Backslash Character and Special Expressions
       The  symbols \< and \> respectively match the empty string at the beginning and end of a word.  The symbol \b matches the empty string at the edge of
       a word, and \B matches the empty string provided it's not at the edge of a word.  The symbol \w is a synonym for [[:alnum:]] and \W is a synonym  for
       [^[:alnum:]].

   Repetition
       A regular expression may be followed by one of several repetition operators:
       ?      The preceding item is optional and matched at most once.
       *      The preceding item will be matched zero or more times.
       +      The preceding item will be matched one or more times.
       {n}    The preceding item is matched exactly n times.
       {n,}   The preceding item is matched n or more times.
       {,m}   The preceding item is matched at most m times.
       {n,m}  The preceding item is matched at least n times, but not more than m times.

   Concatenation
       Two  regular  expressions  may  be  concatenated;  the  resulting  regular  expression matches any string formed by concatenating two substrings that
       respectively match the concatenated expressions.

   Alternation
       Two regular expressions may be joined by the infix operator |; the  resulting  regular  expression  matches  any  string  matching  either  alternate
       expression.

   Precedence
       Repetition  takes  precedence over concatenation, which in turn takes precedence over alternation.  A whole expression may be enclosed in parentheses
       to override these precedence rules and form a subexpression.

   Back References and Subexpressions
       The back-reference \n, where n is a single digit, matches the substring previously matched by the nth  parenthesized  subexpression  of  the  regular
       expression.

   Basic vs Extended Regular Expressions
       In  basic  regular  expressions the meta-characters ?, +, {, |, (, and ) lose their special meaning; instead use the backslashed versions \?, \+, \{,
       \|, \(, and \).

       Traditional egrep did not support the { meta-character, and some egrep implementations support \{ instead, so portable  scripts  should  avoid  {  in
       grep -E patterns and should use [{] to match a literal {.

       GNU  grep -E  attempts  to support traditional usage by assuming that { is not special if it would be the start of an invalid interval specification.
       For example, the command grep -E '{1' searches for the two-character string {1 instead of  reporting  a  syntax  error  in  the  regular  expression.
       POSIX.2 allows this behavior as an extension, but portable scripts should avoid it.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The behavior of grep is affected by the following environment variables.

       The  locale  for  category  LC_foo is specified by examining the three environment variables LC_ALL, LC_foo, LANG, in that order.  The first of these
       variables that is set specifies the locale.  For example, if LC_ALL is not set, but LC_MESSAGES is set to pt_BR, then the Brazilian Portuguese locale
       is  used  for the LC_MESSAGES category.  The C locale is used if none of these environment variables are set, if the locale catalog is not installed,
       or if grep was not compiled with national language support (NLS).

       GREP_OPTIONS
              This variable specifies default options to be placed  in  front  of  any  explicit  options.   For  example,  if  GREP_OPTIONS  is  '--binary-
              files=without-match  --directories=skip',  grep  behaves  as  if  the two options --binary-files=without-match and --directories=skip had been
              specified before any explicit options.  Option specifications are separated by whitespace.  A backslash escapes the next character, so it  can
              be used to specify an option containing whitespace or a backslash.

       GREP_COLOR
              This  variable specifies the color used to highlight matched (non-empty) text.  It is deprecated in favor of GREP_COLORS, but still supported.
              The mt, ms, and mc capabilities of GREP_COLORS have priority over it.  It can only specify the color used to highlight the matching  non-empty
              text  in  any matching line (a selected line when the -v command-line option is omitted, or a context line when -v is specified).  The default
              is 01;31, which means a bold red foreground text on the terminal's default background.

       GREP_COLORS
              Specifies the colors and other attributes used to highlight various parts of the output.  Its value is a colon-separated list of  capabilities
              that  defaults  to ms=01;31:mc=01;31:sl=:cx=:fn=35:ln=32:bn=32:se=36 with the rv and ne boolean capabilities omitted (i.e., false).  Supported
              capabilities are as follows.

              sl=    SGR substring for whole selected lines (i.e., matching lines when the -v command-line option is omitted, or non-matching lines when  -v
                     is  specified).  If however the boolean rv capability and the -v command-line option are both specified, it applies to context matching
                     lines instead.  The default is empty (i.e., the terminal's default color pair).

              cx=    SGR substring for whole context lines (i.e., non-matching lines when the -v command-line option is omitted, or matching lines  when  -v
                     is  specified).   If  however  the boolean rv capability and the -v command-line option are both specified, it applies to selected non-
                     matching lines instead.  The default is empty (i.e., the terminal's default color pair).

              rv     Boolean value that reverses (swaps) the meanings of the sl= and cx= capabilities when the -v command-line  option  is  specified.   The
                     default is false (i.e., the capability is omitted).

              mt=01;31
                     SGR  substring for matching non-empty text in any matching line (i.e., a selected line when the -v command-line option is omitted, or a
                     context line when -v is specified).  Setting this is equivalent to setting both ms= and mc= at once to the same value.  The default  is
                     a bold red text foreground over the current line background.

              ms=01;31
                     SGR  substring  for  matching  non-empty text in a selected line.  (This is only used when the -v command-line option is omitted.)  The
                     effect of the sl= (or cx= if rv) capability remains active when this kicks in.  The default is a bold  red  text  foreground  over  the
                     current line background.

              mc=01;31
                     SGR  substring  for  matching non-empty text in a context line.  (This is only used when the -v command-line option is specified.)  The
                     effect of the cx= (or sl= if rv) capability remains active when this kicks in.  The default is a bold  red  text  foreground  over  the
                     current line background.

              fn=35  SGR  substring  for  file  names  prefixing  any  content  line.   The default is a magenta text foreground over the terminal's default
                     background.

              ln=32  SGR substring for line numbers prefixing any content line.  The default  is  a  green  text  foreground  over  the  terminal's  default
                     background.

              bn=32  SGR  substring  for  byte  offsets  prefixing  any  content  line.   The default is a green text foreground over the terminal's default
                     background.

              se=36  SGR substring for separators that are inserted between selected line fields (:), between context line fields, (-), and  between  groups
                     of  adjacent  lines  when  nonzero  context  is  specified  (--).   The  default  is a cyan text foreground over the terminal's default
                     background.

              ne     Boolean value that prevents clearing to the end of line using Erase in Line (EL) to Right (\33[K) each  time  a  colorized  item  ends.
                     This  is  needed  on  terminals on which EL is not supported.  It is otherwise useful on terminals for which the back_color_erase (bce)
                     boolean terminfo capability does not apply, when the chosen highlight colors do not affect the background, or when EL is  too  slow  or
                     causes too much flicker.  The default is false (i.e., the capability is omitted).

              Note that boolean capabilities have no =...  part.  They are omitted (i.e., false) by default and become true when specified.

              See  the  Select Graphic Rendition (SGR) section in the documentation of the text terminal that is used for permitted values and their meaning
              as character attributes.  These substring values are integers in decimal representation and can be concatenated with semicolons.   grep  takes
              care  of  assembling  the result into a complete SGR sequence (\33[...m).  Common values to concatenate include 1 for bold, 4 for underline, 5
              for blink, 7 for inverse, 39 for default foreground color, 30 to 37 for foreground colors, 90 to  97  for  16-color  mode  foreground  colors,
              38;5;0 to 38;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color modes foreground colors, 49 for default background color, 40 to 47 for background colors, 100 to
              107 for 16-color mode background colors, and 48;5;0 to 48;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color modes background colors.

       LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LANG
              These variables specify the locale for the LC_COLLATE category, which determines the collating sequence used to  interpret  range  expressions
              like [a-z].

       LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG
              These variables specify the locale for the LC_CTYPE category, which determines the type of characters, e.g., which characters are whitespace.

       LC_ALL, LC_MESSAGES, LANG
              These  variables  specify  the  locale for the LC_MESSAGES category, which determines the language that grep uses for messages.  The default C
              locale uses American English messages.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              If set, grep behaves as POSIX.2 requires; otherwise, grep behaves more like other GNU programs.  POSIX.2 requires  that  options  that  follow
              file  names  must be treated as file names; by default, such options are permuted to the front of the operand list and are treated as options.
              Also, POSIX.2 requires that unrecognized options be diagnosed as “illegal”, but since they are not really against the law the  default  is  to
              diagnose them as “invalid”.  POSIXLY_CORRECT also disables _N_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_, described below.

       _N_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_
              (Here  N  is  grep's  numeric process ID.)  If the ith character of this environment variable's value is 1, do not consider the ith operand of
              grep to be an option, even if it appears to be one.  A shell can put this variable in the environment for each  command  it  runs,  specifying
              which  operands  are  the  results of file name wildcard expansion and therefore should not be treated as options.  This behavior is available
              only with the GNU C library, and only when POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set.

EXIT STATUS
       The exit status is 0 if selected lines are found, and 1 if not found.  If an error occurred the exit status is 2.  (Note: POSIX error  handling  code
       should check for '2' or greater.)

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 1998-2000, 2002, 2005-2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  is  free  software;  see  the  source  for  copying conditions.  There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.

BUGS
   Reporting Bugs
       Email bug reports to <bug-grep@gnu.org>, a mailing list whose web page  is  <http://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/bug-grep>.   grep's  Savannah  bug
       tracker is located at <http://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=grep>.

   Known Bugs
       Large  repetition counts in the {n,m} construct may cause grep to use lots of memory.  In addition, certain other obscure regular expressions require
       exponential time and space, and may cause grep to run out of memory.

       Back-references are very slow, and may require exponential time.

SEE ALSO
   Regular Manual Pages
       awk(1), cmp(1), diff(1), find(1), gzip(1), perl(1), sed(1), sort(1), xargs(1), zgrep(1), mmap(2), read(2),  pcre(3),  pcresyntax(3),  pcrepattern(3),
       terminfo(5), glob(7), regex(7).

   POSIX Programmer's Manual Page
       grep(1p).

   TeXinfo Documentation
       The full documentation for grep is maintained as a TeXinfo manual.  If the info and grep programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info grep

       should give you access to the complete manual.

NOTES
       GNU's not Unix, but Unix is a beast; its plural form is Unixen.



User Commands                                                          GNU grep 2.6.3                                                                GREP(1)
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